26 Oct 2023

Israel-Palestine Conflict: Is two-state solution practically achievable, what are hurdles?

Amidst the ongoing Israel-Palestine war, India has said that it has consistently supported a negotiated two-state solution for the resolution of the issue. This solution aims to lead to the establishment of a sovereign, independent, and viable Palestinian state, living alongside Israel in peace within secure and recognized borders, while taking into account Israel's legitimate security concerns.

The Biden administration has reaffirmed U.S. support for a two-state solution but hasn't moved to restart negotiations. But how practical is the two-state solution and is it possible to achieve it? 

The two-state solution to the Israeli–Palestinian conflict envisions an independent State of Palestine alongside the State of Israel, west of the Jordan River. The boundary between the two states is still subject to dispute and negotiation, with Palestinian and Arab leadership demanding full Israeli withdrawal from territories it occupied in 1967, which is rejected by Israel.

The first requirement for the establishment of any country is land. This is also the need of Palestine. But thousands of Jewish settlements have now been established in areas like the West Bank which were considered to belong to Palestine.

Israel declared Arab-dominated Jerusalem as its capital

Apart from this, Israel has declared Arab-dominated Jerusalem as its capital and many countries like America have recognized it.

For this reason, many people think that it is difficult to establish a separate Palestinian state geographically.

Jewish settlements have increased manifold

The establishment of a separate Palestinian state will be extremely challenging. The formation of a separate Palestinian state has become more difficult today than in the 1990s. Jewish settlements in the West Bank and Jerusalem have increased manifold. Today, Jewish settlements have also been established in areas which are illegal under the laws of Israel itself.

Israel no longer interested in formula of two separate states

Apart from this, Israel is no longer interested in the formula of two separate states. On the other hand, Palestine does not have any credible leader to take the peace process forward for the Palestinians.

Many experts say that the biggest obstacle to the formation of Palestine is the Jewish settlements.

They say that Israel has removed all its settlements from Gaza and has completely given up control there. This can be done in the West Bank also. Even if it is a little difficult.

Similarly, if both sides relax their stance regarding Jerusalem, then a consensus can be reached here too.

Who will break the decades-old deadlock is a big question

In the new circumstances of war that have arisen between Israel and Palestine, who will break the decades-old deadlock is a big question.

Experts believe that in such a situation America should come forward again. If America takes peace initiatives with the support of the international community, it can succeed.

It is a historical fact that whenever America has wanted to do something in the Middle East, it has been implemented. Like the Egypt-Israel peace agreement, the agreement with Jordan, even the recent Abraham Accords. America has played a role in all this.

Is America interested in establishing peace in Middle East

Now the question is whether America is interested in establishing peace in the Middle East?

In the years after the 9/11 attacks, America's attention became focused on the war against terrorism. Later it remained involved with Iran, Russia and China. But now America will have to become active again in the affairs of the Middle East. Otherwise everyone will have to suffer the consequences of the Israel-Palestine conflict. After some time this conflict will become more widespread.

No one talking about peace

Seen this way, America is the biggest hope for peace between Palestine and Israel. If it takes initiative for peace, then a ray of hope appears.

But the problem is that after the attack on Israel, the scope of the war between Palestine and Israel is widening, no one seems to be talking about peace. Neither America nor Israel nor Hamas.

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